Termination of China’s One-Child Policy
Affects U.S. International Adoption
Department of Homeland Security
U.S Citizenship and Immigration Services
Part 1 - (For educational purposes*)
China's One-Child Policy (History of policy)
Introduced by Deng Xiaoping in 1979, China’s one-child policy to regulate China’s growing population and economic growth. From widespread food shortages to overcrowded cities, China implemented a policy that eventually would cause great distress to its citizens. Forced abortions, heavy fines and in some cases being stripped of their own child were just some
of the consequences.
The one-child policy was enforced by the government through the use harsh punishments particularly aimed towards women.3 In 1984 the policy was adjusted, allowing a second child for some families residing in rural laws. Penalties for unapproved births and fines for additional children were imposed by local government. An exemption to the policy was added in 2013, allowing couples to have children if one parent is an only child. Many couples eligible to have another child decided against it due to the pressures and expenses of raising a child in
a competitive society. The One-child policy was abolished in 2016, allowing all couples to
have two children for the first time in more than three decades.
Part 2 - (For factual information*)
Orphanages of Jiangsu Province (District structure)
As of 2006, Jiangsu Province has a total of 23 orphanages participating in the international adoption program. Separated into jurisdictions, that number includes:
Part 3 - (For subjective information*)
Why Adopt From China (Key points on adoption)
China’s adoption process is stable and predictable. In 1991 a structured system was implemented to support inter-country adoptions. According to the US Department of State, more than 38,000 Chinese orphans have been adopted by U.S. citizens from 2006 to the
end of the 2017 fiscal year.
The length of time to be matched with a child varies. The average adoption process takes
12 to 18 months from the time of application submission to traveling to China to adopt your child in China.
Abandonment is illegal in China and the majority of children given up for adoption are abandoned without any information on their biological parents. When adoptive parents travel
to China to adopt their child, they acquire all legal rights.
Adoption from China is the most affordable international adoption program. All fees and expenses are clearly outlined at the beginning of the adoption process.
ADOPTION FINALIZED IN CHINA
The adoption process is finalized in China, and upon arrival to the United States
your child will become a US Citizen.
Part 4 - (For legal information*)
How to adopt from China (Government forms)
1. Choose a U.S. Accredited or Approved Adoption Service Provider to Act as Your Primary
Provider that has been authorized by China’s Central Authority
2. Apply to USCIS to be Found Suitable and Eligible to Adopt (Form I-800A)
3. Apply to China’s Authorities to Adopt and Be Matched with a Child
4. Apply to USCIS for the Child to be Found Provisionally Eligible for Immigration to the United
States as a Convention Adoptee (Form I-800) and Receive U.S.
5. Agreement to Proceed with the Adoption
6. Adopt the Child in China
7. Apply for a U.S. Immigrant Visa for Your Child and Bring Your Child Home 6
Part 5 - (For statistical information*)
Decline in International Adoption (Global impact)
After the termination of China’s one child policy in 2016, the number of children adoption by Americans has steadily declined. For the first time, males outnumbered females among adoptees, changing adoption patterns in China. Increased efforts by the Chinese government and a strong economy are largely responsible for these demographic shifts. The average age of international adoptees has increased. Before 2008, the largest share of adoptees was those less than 1 year old (44%). Between 2008 and 2014, there were nearly twice as many adoptees ages 1 to 2 (39%) as adoptees under 1 year (20%). In 2015 and 2016, the largest share of total adoptees to the U.S. was considerably older, ranging in age from 5 to 12 (35%).
Part 6 - (For personal narrative*)
“On March 6, 1998, I was born in Nanjing, China and it is not known when my biological mother gave me up for adoption. My caretakers at the orphanage took care of me until a family in the United States was notified that there was a baby girl up for adoption. During the March of 1998, the winter months were brutally cold and it was said that I was dropped up at the orphanage steps wrapped in a blanket shortly after I was born. Although I do not know the truth, I can surmise that I was left by my birth mom to be adopted by a family that could care and provide for me with a better life then she would have been able to. Eleven months later a family from the United States flew to China and I would become their daughter.”